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Also in the eastern part of Samarkand there are several quarters where Central Asian "Gypsies" [49] Lyuli , Djugi, Parya , and other groups live.

These peoples began to arrive in Samarkand several centuries ago from what are now India and Pakistan. They mainly speak a dialect of the Tajik language, as well as their own languages, most notably Parya.

The state and official language in Samarkand, as in all Uzbekistan, is the Uzbek language. Uzbek is one of the Turkic languages and the mother tongue of Uzbeks , Turkmens , Samarkandian Iranians , and most Samarkandian Arabs living in Samarkand.

De facto, the most common native language in Samarkand is Tajiki, which is a dialect or variant of the Persian language Farsi.

Samarkand was one of the cities in which the Persian language developed. However, as no population census has been taken in Uzbekistan since , there are no accurate data on this matter.

Despite Tajiki being the second most common language in Samarkand, it does not enjoy the status of an official or regional language. Before that, almost all inhabitants of Samarqand were Zoroastrians , and many Nestorians and Buddhists also lived in the city.

From that point forward, throughout the reigns of many Muslim governing powers, numerous mosques , madrasahs , minarets , [shrine]s, and mausoleums were built in the city.

Many have been preserved. For example, there is the Shrine of Imam Bukhari , an Islamic scholar who authored the hadith collection known as Sahih al-Bukhari , which Sunni Muslims regard as one of the most authentic sahih hadith collections.

His other books included Al-Adab al-Mufrad. Imam Bukhari Shrine. Imam Maturidi Shrine. Ruhabad Mausoleum. Nuriddin Basir Shrine.

Khoja Daniyar Mausoleum. The Samarqand Vilayat is one of the two regions of Uzbekistan along with Bukhara Vilayat that is home to a large number of Shiites.

There are no exact data on the number of Shiites in the city of Samarkand, but the city has several Shiite mosques and madrasas.

Every year, the Shiites of Samarkand celebrate Ashura , as well as other memorable Shiite dates and holidays. Shiites in Samarkand are mostly Samarqandian Iranians , who call themselves Irani.

Their ancestors began to arrive Samarkand in the 18th century. Some migrated there in search of a better life, others were sold as slaves there by Turkmen captors, and others were soldiers who were posted to Samarkand.

Samarkandian Shiites also include Azerbaijanis , as well as small numbers of Tajiks and Uzbeks. While there are no official data on the total number of Shiites in Uzbekistan, they are estimated to be "several hundred thousand.

The Ambassador slightly doubted the authenticity of these figures, emphasizing in his report that data on the numbers of religious and ethnic minorities provided by the government of Uzbekistan were considered a very "delicate topic" due to their potential to provoke interethnic and interreligious conflicts.

All the ambassadors of the ambassador tried to emphasize that traditional Islam, especially Sufism and Sunnism , in the regions of Bukhara and Samarqand is characterized by great religious tolerance toward other religions and sects, including Shiism [52] [53] [54].

Panjab Shia Mosque. Panjab Shia Madrasa. Murad Avliya Shrine. Christianity was introduced to Samarkand when it was part of Soghdiana, long before the penetration of Islam into Central Asia.

The city then became one of the centers of Nestorianism in Central Asia. Under the Umayyad Caliphate , Zoroastrians and Nestorians were persecuted by the Arab conquerors; the survivors fled to other places or converted to Islam.

Several Nestorian temples were built in Samarkand, but they have not survived. Their remains were found by archeologists at the ancient site of Afrasiyab and on the outskirts of Samarkand.

In the three decades of —, the Samarkand eparchy of the Roman Catholic Church served several thousand Catholics who lived in the city. According to Marco Polo and Johann Elemosina, a descendant of Chaghatai Khan , the founder of the Chaghatai dynasty , Eljigidey , converted to Christianity and was baptized.

With the assistance of Eljigidey, the Catholic Church of St. John the Baptist was built in Samarkand. After a while, however, Islam completely supplanted Catholicism.

Christianity reappeared in Samarkand several centuries later, from the midth century onward, after the city was seized by the Russian Empire.

Russian Orthodoxy was introduced to Samarkand in , and several churches and temples were built. In the early 20th century several more Orthodox cathedrals, churches, and temples were built, most of which were demolished while Samarkand was part of the USSR.

The city has several active Orthodox churches: Cathedral of St. George the Victorious. There are also a number of inactive Orthodox churches and temples, for example that of Church of St.

George Pobedonosets. There are also a few tens of thousands of Catholics in Samarkand, mostly Poles , Germans , and some Ukrainians.

In the center of Samarkand is St. John the Baptist Catholic Church , which was built at the beginning of the 20th century.

Samarkand is part of the Apostolic Administration of Uzbekistan. The third largest Christian sect in Samarkand is the Armenian Apostolic Church , followed by a few tens of thousands of Armenian Samarkandians.

Armenian Christians began emigrating to Samarkand at the end of the 19th century, this flow increasing especially in the Soviet era.

Orthodox Cathedral of St. Alexiy Moscowskiy. Orthodox Church of the Intercession of the Holy Virgin. Orthodox Church of St. John the Baptist Catholic Church.

Armenian Church Surb Astvatsatsin. Samarkand also has several thousand Protestants , including Lutherans , Baptists , Mormons , Jehovah's Witnesses , Adventists , and members of the Korean Presbyterian church.

These Christian movements appeared in Samarkand mainly after the independence of Uzbekistan in Aqsaray Timurids Mausoleum.

Bibi Khanum Mausoleum. Ishratkhana Mausoleum. Makhsum Baba Mausoleum. Abdu Darun Complex. Abdu Berun Complex. Ulughbek Madrasa.

Shirdar Madrasa. Tilla Kari Madrasa. Khoja Ahrar Madrasa. Panjab Madrasa. Namazgah Mosque. Hazrat Hizir Mosque. Khoja Nisbatdar Mosque.

Timur initiated the building of Bibi Khanum after his — campaign in India. Bibi Khanum originally had about marble columns, which were hauled there and set up with the help of 95 elephants that Timur had brought back from Hindustan.

Artisans and stonemasons from India designed the mosque's dome, giving it its distinctive appearance amongst the other buildings.

An earthquake destroyed the columns, which were not entirely restored in the subsequent reconstruction.

The best-known landmark of Samarkand is the mausoleum known as Gur-i Amir. It exhibits the influences of many cultures, past civilizations, neighboring peoples, and religions, especially those of Islam.

Despite the devastation wrought by Mongols to Samarkand's pre-Timurid Islamic architecture, under Timur these architectural styles were revived, recreated, and restored.

The blueprint and layout of the mosque itself, with their precise measurements, demonstrate the Islamic passion for geometry.

The entrance to the Gur-i Amir is decorated with Arabic calligraphy and inscriptions, the latter a common feature in Islamic architecture.

Timur's meticulous attention to detail is especially obvious inside the mausoleum: the tiled walls are a marvelous example of mosaic faience , an Iranian technique in which each tile is cut, colored, and fit into place individually.

The ornamentation of the Gur-i Amir's walls includes floral and vegetal motifs, which signify gardens; the floor tiles feature uninterrupted floral patterns.

In Islam, gardens are symbols of paradise, and as such they were depicted on the walls of tombs and grown in Samarkand itself.

In , a friend of Genghis Khan named Yelü Chucai reported that Samarkand was the most beautiful city of all, as "it was surrounded by numerous gardens.

Every household had a garden, and all the gardens were well designed, with canals and water fountains that supplied water to round or square-shaped ponds.

The landscape included rows of willows and cypress trees, and peach and plum orchards were shoulder to shoulder. The elements of traditional Islamic architecture can be seen in traditional mud-brick Uzbek houses that are built around central courtyards with gardens.

By contrast, houses in the west of the city are chiefly European-style homes built in the 19th and 20th centuries. Turko-Mongol influence is also apparent in Samarkand's architecture.

It is believed that the melon-shaped domes of the mausoleums were designed to echo yurts or gers , traditional Mongol tents in which the bodies of the dead were displayed before burial or other disposition.

Timur built his tents from more-durable materials, such as bricks and wood, but their purposes remained largely unchanged. These banners symbolized an ancient Turkic tradition of sacrificing horses, which were valuable commodities, to honor the dead.

Colors of buildings in Samarkand also have significant meanings. The dominant architectural color is blue, which Timur used to convey a broad range of concepts.

For example, the shades of blue in the Gur-i Amir are colors of mourning; in that era, blue was the color of mourning in Central Asia, as it still is in various cultures today.

Blue was also considered the color that could ward off "the evil eye " in Central Asia; this notion is evidenced by in the number of blue-painted doors in and around the city.

Furthermore, blue represented water, a particularly rare resource in the Middle East and Central Asia; walls painted blue symbolized the wealth of the city.

Gold also has a strong presence in the city. Timur's fascination with vaulting explains the excessive use of gold in the Gur-i Amir, as well as the use of embroidered gold fabric in both the city and his buildings.

The Mongols had great interests in Chinese- and Persian-style golden silk textiles, as well as nasij [65] woven in Iran and Transoxiana.

Mongol leaders like Ögedei Khan built textile workshops in their cities to be able to produce gold fabrics themselves. Samarkand has a strong public-transport system.

Buses, mostly SamAuto and Isuzu buses, are the most common and popular mode of transport in the city. Taxis, which are mostly Chevrolets and Daewoo sedans, are usually yellow in color.

Since , there have also been several Samarkandian tram lines , mostly Vario LF. S Czech trams. From the Soviet Era up until , Samarkandians also got around via trolleybus.

Until , the main forms of transport in Samarkand were carriages and " arabas " with horses and donkeys.

However, the city had a steam tram in —, and there were more-modern trams in — In the north of the city is Samarkand International Airport , which was opened in the s, under the Soviets.

Modern Samarkand is an important railway center of Uzbekistan; all national east—west railway routes pass through the city. The most important and longest of these is Tashkent — Kungrad.

High-speed Tashkent—Samarkand high-speed rail line trains run between Tashkent, Samarkand, and Bukhara.

The railway originated in Krasnovodsk now Turkmenbashi on the Caspian Sea coast. Its terminus was originally Samarkand, whose station first opened in May However, a decade later, the railway was extended eastward to Tashkent and Andijan , and its name was changed to Central Asian Railways.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Semerkant. For other uses, see Markanda disambiguation. City in Samarkand Vilayat, Uzbekistan.

See also: Timeline of Samarkand. See also: Russian Turkestan. This article needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information.

November This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.

May Learn how and when to remove this template message. Registan Ensemble and Square. Shahi Zinda Ensemble. Gure Amir Shrine of Timur and Timurids.

Ulughbek Observatory. Bibi Khanum Mosque. Afrasiyab Talgo high-speed train in Samarkand railway station.

This section is in list format, but may read better as prose. You can help by converting this section , if appropriate.

Editing help is available. December December Learn how and when to remove this template message. Archived from the original on Retrieved The Wallstreet Journal.

Archived from the original on 3 November Retrieved 1 November London: McFarland. Samarkand City, southeastern Uzbekistan.

Its own name derives from the Sogdian words samar , "stone, rock", and kand , "fort, town". The Silk Road: two thousand years in the heart of Asia.

Bulletin of the Asia Institute. Weir, Margaret Graham ed. The Arab Kingdom and its Fall. University of Calcutta. Life Along the Silk Road.

Ermeniler , Orthodox Cathedral of St. Alexiy Moscowskiy. Orthodox Church of the Intercession of the Holy Virgin. Orthodox Church of St.

George the Victorious. John the Baptist Catholic Church. Armenian Church Surb Astvatsatsin. Vikipedi, özgür ansiklopedi. ISBN City, southeastern Uzbekistan.

The city derives its name from that of the former Greek city here of Marakanda, captured by Alexander the Great in B.

Its own name derives from the Old Persian asmara , "stone", "rock", and Sogdian kand , "fort", "town". Divanü Lügati't - Türk.

Quraishi, "A survey of thedevelopment of papermaking in Islamic Countries", Bookbinder , 3 : Central Asian Survey. Tauris, p. The unofficial figure is over 6 million Tajiks.

They are concentrated in the Sukhandarya, Samarqand and Bukhara regions. A History of the Tajiks. Iranians of the East.

London: I.

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